National defense technology and aerospace are symbols of the development of national technology. The fields involved are wide. Optics is a basic science, of course, it becomes a part of here, but also an important part. In the entire system, optics is the eye for exploring the universe and the earth.
In the field of national defense, modern defense systems are moving towards optical-based imaging, remote sensing, communications and weapons. This trend makes maintaining a leading position in the fields of optics and photonics essential to maintaining the US's position in defense applications.
The advantages of using optics for space missions extend to communications, including satellite-to-ground, ground-to-satellite, satellite-to-satellite, and deep space links externally and free space optics internal networks. These capabilities, similar to what is required for imaging and sensing systems, depend upon optical electronics components in modern communications, such as optocouplers, amplifiers, detectors, attenuators, LEDs, lasers and modulators, and PCBAs for data and information processing and integration with other electronics devices and boards. However, the space environment does pose challenges, as listed below, that must be addressed.