Introduction to the basic principle of optical lens
High Surface Accuracy Optical Components Supplier shares that ti's principle is simple: assume that the refracting energy of a lens occurs only on the optical surface (e.g., the lens surface), remove as much optical material as possible, and retain the curvature of the surface.
Another way to think about it is that part of the lens's continuous surface "collapses" into a plane. In section, the surface is composed of a series of serrated grooves, with an elliptic arc in the center. Each groove has a different Angle from its neighbor, but each focuses the light in a central focus, the focal point of the lens. Each groove can be viewed as a separate small lens that adjusts the rays to parallel or focus them. The lens also eliminates some spherical aberrations.
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